domingo, 27 de marzo de 2016

Easter related words

Happy Easter Sunday!

Would you like some simnel cake? :)
Check the following link to learn some Easter related vocab.:

Journey collocations

journey noun 

long, marathon |
brief, short | outward (:away from home) The date of your outward journey is 16th April.
homeward, return | 
onward The bus driver told us where to change buses for our onward journey. | bus, car, rail, railway, train, etc. | 
five-mile, four-hour, etc. |
comfortable, easy, good, pleasant, safe I hope you had a good journey. Have a safe journey. 
arduous, awkward, bad, difficult, gruelling, hard, tedious, terrible, tiring, tortuous | 
dangerous, hazardous, perilous | 
overland | 
cross-country | 
daily | 
overnight | 
epic an epic journey across Africa on foot
wasted The library was closed when I got there, so it was a wasted journey. | emotional, sentimental, spiritual He made the emotional journey back to the house he grew up in.

'Travel' as a noun and its collocations

travel noun 
air, bus, car, coach, rail, sea, train | 
foreign, international, overseas, world Foreign travel never really appealed to him until he retired.
long-distance | 
business | 
leisure | 
cheap, concessionary, free | 
first-class | 
high-speed | 
return | 
frequent The job involves frequent travel.
space, time 

agency, business, company, firm, industry | 
arrangements, plans | 
allowance, costs, expenses | 
insurance | 
document, documentation | 
itinerary | 
time The new bypass will reduce travel time to the airport.
sickness | 
book, brochure, guide, writer

~ from, ~ to The price includes return rail travel from London Victoria to Dover. 

Travel, trip, journey, voyage or cruise?

travel/travelling (nouns): Travel is the general term to describe going from one place to another. 
We can talk about someone's travels to refer to the journeys he/she makes:
  • His/her travels abroad provided lots of background material for novels he/she wrote.
Travelling is also a general term which refers to the activity of travel:
  • Travelling by boat between the islands is less tiring than travelling by road.

  • I don't do as much travelling as I used to now that I'm retired.
Travel often crops up as part of compound nouns. Compare the following:
  • Make sure you keep all your travel documents safely. You can obtain your travel tickets from the travel agents in the High Street if you don't want to order them over the Internet. Some of you may suffer from travel sickness. Air travel may well give you a bumpy ride. If you don't have a credit or debit card, make sure you take plenty of traveller's cheques with you.
We often use travel as a verb:
  • I love to travel during the summer holidays. This year I plan to travel all around the Iberian Peninsula.
journey (noun)one single piece of travel. You make journeys when you travel from one place to another. (Note that the plural is spelt journeys, not journies):
  • The journey from London to Newcastle by train can now be completed in under three hours.

  • We can talk about journeys taking or lasting a long time:

  • How long did your journey take? ~ Oh, it lasted for ever. We stopped at every small station.

  • We occasionally use journey as a verb as an alternative to travel, although it may sound a bit formal or poetic:

  • We journeyed /travelled between the pyramids in Mexico on horseback.
trip (noun): usually involves more than one single journey
We talk about day trips, round trips and business trips
We make journeys usually, but we go on trips:
  • I went on a day trip to France. We left at 6.30 in the morning and returned before midnight the same day.

  • The round-trip ticket enabled me to visit all the major tourist destinations in India.

  • Where's Laurie? ~ He won't be in this week. He's gone on a business trip to Malaysia and Singapore.

  • The trip went well. It was an old car, but we didn't break down in four weeks of travelling
    --> expedition (noun):an organised trip whose purpose is usually scientific exploration of the environment. You go on expeditions, just as you go on trips.
  • Numerous expeditions to The Antarctic have ended in disaster.

  • Are you going to join the expedition up the Amazon this year, like the one Tom went on last year?

  • Less dangerous and less adventurous are shopping expeditions when you are hunting down particular goods or bargains and fishing expeditions when you go in search of fish which are not easy to locate or catch.
    --> safari (noun): a trip or expedition to observe wild animals in their natural habitat in Africa, usually. You go on safari to safari parks. In days gone by, you might have worn your light cotton safari suit for this purpose:
  • His one ambition in life was to go on safari to Kenya to photograph lions and tigers.
cruise (noun and verb): a holiday during which you travel on a ship or boat and visit a number of places en route. 
When we cruise, this is exactly what we do:
  • They cruised all around the Mediterranean for eight weeks last summer and stopped off at a number of uninhabited islands.

  • My parents have seen nothing of the world so are saving up to go on a world cruise when they retire. They are hoping to take a trip on the cruise liner, the QE2, in 2004.
voyage (noun): a long journey, not necessarily for pleasure, on a ship
We don't talk about voyages very much in the present time, but historically they were very significant:
  • His second voyage (1493 - 96) led to the discovery of several Caribbean islands. On his third voyage (1498 - 1500) he discovered the South American mainland.
    (Christopher Columbus, the great explorer)

jueves, 17 de marzo de 2016

The Airport

Parts of an airport:

a duty-free shop
a shop in an airport where you don't have to pay taxes on the goods you buy

a departure lounge
the part of an airport where you wait until you get on the plane

a gate
the place in the airport where you go to get onto your flight

a runway
the part of an airport, like a road, which planes use when arriving or departing from an airport

a control tower
the building in an airport which tells planes when it is safe for them to take off and land

Air travel jobs:

the cabin crew
the people who look after passengers during a flight

a pilot
a person who flies a plane

a baggage handler
a person who is responsible for your luggage, after you check-in, and takes it to the plane

an immigration officer
a person who checks your visa and passport when you go into a country

a customs officer
a person who checks you are not trying to bring illegal food, drugs, guns or other items into a country

Things you find on a plane:

a cockpit
the place where the pilots sit to control the plane

a galley
the area on a plane where the cabin crew prepare meals and store duty-free goods etc.

a trolley
a small cupboard with wheels. Cabin crews use trolleys to take food and drink to passengers during a flight

a seatbelt
a safety feature on planes to secure passengers in their seats

an overhead locker
a storage area above passengers' heads in a plane

a tray-table
a small table that is stored in the back of the seat in front of you on a plane

an oxygen mask
a piece of safety equipment which passengers put over their nose and mouth to help them breath if there is an emergency on a plane

hand luggage (uncountable)
small bags or suitcases which passengers carry with them onto the plane

checked baggage/luggage (uncountable)
large suitcases or bags which passengers don't carry with them onto the plane but which are put in the hold (the storage area of a plane)

Verbs about air travel:

to check in
to show your travel documents to the airline staff in the airport so that you can begin your journey

to board/to embark
to go onto a plane at the beginning of the journey

to disembark
to get off a plane

to take off
to start flying in the air

to taxi
to move a plane slowly along the ground before or after flying

to cruise
to fly at a steady speed

to land
to bring a plane down to the ground

to fasten/unfasten a seatbelt
to secure two parts of your seat-belt together/to untie your seatbelt

to approach (the runway)
to fly at slow speak towards the runway

to declare
to give information about goods or money you are bringing into a country


a standstill:
a stop or an end

a designated area:
a place that is signed for a particular purpose (for example, a designated smoking area)

a terminal building:
the part of an airport where planes arrive or depart from

a message:
text information to or from a mobile phone

to confiscate:
to take something away from someone as a punishment for doing something wrong

Flight attendants

What They Do

Flight attendants provide personal services to ensure the safety and comfort of airline passengers.


Flight attendants typically do the following:
  • Attend preflight briefings on details of the flight
  • Ensure that adequate supplies of refreshments and emergency equipment are on board
  • Assist in cleaning the cabin between flights
  • Demonstrate the use of safety and emergency equipment
  • Ensure all passengers have seatbelts fastened and ensure other safety requirements are met
  • Serve, and sometimes sell, beverages, meals, or snacks
  • Take care of passengers’ needs, particularly those with special needs
  • Reassure passengers during flight, such as when the aircraft hits turbulence
  • Administer first aid to passengers or coordinate first aid efforts, when needed
  • Direct passengers in case of emergency
Airlines are required by law to provide flight attendants for the safety and security of passengers. The primary job of flight attendants is to keep passengers safe and to ensure that everyone follows security regulations. Flight attendants also try to make flights comfortable and enjoyable for passengers.
About 1 hour before takeoff, the captain (pilot) informs attendants about evacuation procedures, the length of the flight, and weather conditions. Flight attendants must ensure that emergency equipment is working, the cabin is clean, and there is an adequate supply of food and beverages on board. Flight attendants greet passengers as they board the aircraft and direct them to their seats, assisting as needed.
Before the plane takes off, flight attendants instruct all passengers on the use of safety equipment, either by playing a video recording or demonstrating its use in person. They also ensure that seatbelts are fastened, seats are locked in the upright position, and all carry-on items are properly stowed in accordance with federal law and company policy.
A flight attendant’s most important responsibility, however, is to help passengers in the event of an emergency. This responsibility ranges from dealing with unruly passengers to performing first aid, fighting fires, and directing evacuations. Flight attendants also answer questions about the flight, attend to passengers with special needs, help anyone else needing assistance, and generally assist all passengers as needed.
Before the plane lands, flight attendants once again ensure that seatbelts are fastened, seats are locked in the upright position, and all carry-on items are properly stowed.
Before they leave the plane, flight attendants take inventory of headsets, alcoholic beverages, and payments. They also submit reports to the airline company on the condition of the cabin, as well as on any medical problems that may have occurred during the flight.

Important Qualities

Attentiveness. Flight attendants must be aware of passengers’ needs to ensure a pleasant travel experience. They must also be aware of any security or safety risks.
Communication skills. Flight attendants should speak clearly, listen attentively, and interact comfortably with passengers and other crew members.
Customer-service skills. Flight attendants should have poise, tact, and resourcefulness to handle stressful situations and meet passengers' needs.
Decision-making skills. Flight attendants must be able to act decisively in emergency situations.
Physical stamina. Flight attendants may need to lift baggage and stand and walk for long periods. They often need to conform to height and weight requirements and have vision that is correctable to at least 20/40. Flight attendants may have to pass a medical evaluation.
Flight attendants should present a professional appearance and not have visible tattoos, body piercings, or an unusual hairstyle or makeup.

miércoles, 2 de marzo de 2016

Dislocated shoulder/ hip/ jaw

Bruised ribs and thighs


2 illness


> mild, minor | 
> chronic | 
> common Not being able to sleep at night is a very common complaint.
> back, chest, etc. | 
> medical 

> have, suffer from He has a minor skin complaint.


noun [countable]     rash pronunciation in British English

an area of small red spots on your skin, caused by an illness or an allergic reaction to something that you have touched, eaten etc
Heat Rash

Nappy rash 

Nettle Rash


 an infectious disease that affects mainly adults, in which red sore spots cover a particular part of the body